Abrasive Cleaner – A cleaning agent that contains a scouring agent used for cleaning sinks, rusty metals, and soiled floors.

Acid – A medium, such as a food product with a pH below 7.0.

Additives – Any substance added to foods in processing or preparation that may become a chemical hazard, such as sulfites.

Air gap – An unobstructed, vertical distance through the air that separates an outlet of the potable water supply from a potentially contaminated source, such as a faucet in a sink.

Alkali – A medium, such as a food product with a pH above 7.0.

Anisakiasis – The disease caused by Anisakis parasitic roundworms. It causes vomiting, abdominal pain, coughing, and fever. It can also mimic the symptoms of appendicitis.

Aseptic packaging – A method of packing food so that it is free from pathogenic microorganisms.

Bacillus cereus – Bacteria found in soil, dust and water which produce two toxins that cause foodborne intoxications.

Backflow – The flow of contaminants from undrinkable sources into potable water distributing systems.

Back siphonage – One kind of backflow that occurs whenever the pressure in the potable water supply drops below that of the contaminating supply.

Biological hazard – The danger posed to food safety by the contamination of food with pathogenic microorganisms or naturally occurring toxins.

Botulism – The foodborne intoxication caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. The illness, which can be fatal, attacks the nervous system rather than the digestive tract causing double vision, difficulty swallowing, and respiratory collapse among its symptoms.

Campylobacter jejuni – Bacterium that causes the foodborne infection. Typical symptoms are fever, headache and fatigue followed by abdominal pain and diarrhea.

Carrier – A person or animal that harbors disease-causing microorganisms in the body without being noticeably affected but can transmit the organisms to food or to other humans.

Chemical hazard – The danger posed to food safety by the contamination of food by chemical substances, such as pesticides, detergents, additives, and toxic metals.

Chlorine – Chemical used in the form of hypo-chlorites in sanitizing solutions. Chlorine compounds can tarnish and corrode metals like pewter, brass, and silver plate, if used in incorrect concentrations.

Ciguatoxin – A toxin that collects in predatory marine reef fish that have eaten smaller reef fish that have eaten toxic algae. In humans, it causes the disease ciguatera, characterized by dizziness, hot and cold flashes, and temporary blindness.

Clean – Free of visible soil including food particles and dirt.

Cleanability – Requirement for sanitary equipment and facilities in which an item or surface can be exposed without difficulty for cleaning and inspection.

Clostridium botulinum – Bacterium that is most often found in canned goods and other sealed food packages. It causes botulism.

Clostridium perfringens – Bacterium found in the soil, dust, and in animal feces that causes foodborne toxin-mediated infection of the same name.

Contamination – The unintended presence of harmful substances or microorganisms.

Core Item – means a provision that is not designated as a priority item or priority foundation item and includes an item that usually relates to general sanitation, operational controls, sanitation standard operating procedures, facilities or structures, equipment design or general maintenance.

Critical Control Point – An operation by which a preventative or control measure can be applied that would eliminate, prevent or minimize hazards.

Cross connection – Any physical link through which contaminants from drains, sewers, or waste pipes can enter a potable water supply.

Cross contamination – The transfer of harmful microorganisms from one item of food to another by means of a nonfood contact surface (human hands, utensils, etc.) Or directly from a raw food to a cooked on or one which will receive no further cooking.

Danger Zone – The range of temperatures between 41ᵒF – 135ᵒF at which foodborne microorganisms grows best.

Dry storage – Holding nonperishable food items, such as rice, flour, crackers, and canned goods at 50% humidity and between 50-70º F.

Escherichia coli – Bacterium that can cause gastroenteritis in humans.

FIFO – A stock rotation and storage principle that states first in; first out (use of items in storage using the oldest product first).

Foodborne infection – An illness that results from eating food that contains live microorganisms.

Foodborne intoxication – An illness that results from eating food in which toxins produced by bacteria or molds is present. The bacteria themselves may be dead.

Foodborne toxin-mediated infection – A disease that results from eating a food containing a large number of disease-causing microorganism. Once ingested, the human intestine provides the perfect conditions for the microorganisms to produce toxins. Clostridium perfringens cause this type of illness.

Food contact surface – Any surface or equipment or utensil which will come in contact with food.

Freezer burn – The loss of water from the surface of a frozen food causing  an undesirable appearance and texture.

Freezer storage Holding of frozen perishable food items at temperatures of 0º.

Fungi – A group of microorganisms that includes molds and yeast. Fungi are considered to be plants.

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point – A food safety and self-inspection system that highlights potentially hazardous foods and how they are handled.

Hazard – Unacceptable contamination of a biological, chemical or physical nature of concern in food safety.

Hepatitis A – A contagious viral disease hat is transmitted to food by poor personal hygiene or contact with contaminated water. It causes inflammation of the liver.

Ice Paddle – plastic utensils that can be filled with ice or water and frozen.  Used to help cool foods rapidly.

Immuno-compromised – An individual who is susceptible to becoming ill from a foodborne illness due to an existing disease or weakened condition.

Incubation period – The length of time it takes before the symptoms of a foodborne illness appear.

Infestation – Occupation of a facility by pests, particularly cockroaches and other insects, rats and mice.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) – A system of preventative and control tactics and methods used to control or eliminate pest infestations in foodservice establishments.

Iodine  –  A chemical used in sanitizing solutions.

Larva – The immature state of development of parasites and insects.

Listeria monocytogenes – Bacterium found in soil. It grows well in damp places at low temperatures.

Listerosis – The foodborne infection caused by L monocytogenes. It is characterized by severe symptoms and a high mortality rate for immuno-compromised individuals.

Micro-organism – A form of life that can only be seen with the aid of a microscope, such as bacteria, fungi, molds, parasites, viruses, and yeasts.

Mold – Any of various fungi that spoil foods and have a fuzzy appearance.

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) – A food additive used as a flavor enhancer.

MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheet supplied by the manufacturers with common names, potential hazards, information about using and handling it.

Nitrites – Preservatives used by the meat industry as a curing agent to prevent bacterial growth. They can pose a chemical hazard if meat is burned or overbrowned.

Parasite – A microorganism that lives on or inside a host and depends on the host for nourishment.

Pathogen – Any disease-causing agent, usually living microorganism.

PH – A measure of acidity or alkalinity of a food based on a scale of 0 to 14.

Physical hazard – The danger posed to food safety from particles or fragments of items that are not supposed to be in the food such as chips of glass, metal shavings, toothpicks, etc.

Potable – Safe to drink.

Priority Items – means a provision in the application of which contributes directly to the elimination, prevention or reduction to an acceptable level of hazards associated with foodborne illness or injury and there is no other provision that more directly controls the hazards.  Priority item includes an item with a quantifiable measure to show control of hazards such as cooking, reheating, cooling or handwashing.

Priority Foundation – means the provision whose application supports facilitates, or enables one or more priority items.  “Priority foundation item” includes an item that requires the purposeful incorporation of specific actions, equipment or procedures by industry management to attain control of risk factors that contribute to foodborne illness or injury such as personnel training, infrastructure or necessary equipment, HACCP plans, documentation or record keeping, and labeling

Reduced Oxygen Packaging (ROP) – the reduction of the amount of oxygen in a package by removing oxygen; displacing oxygen, and replacing it with another gas or combination of gases; or otherwise controlling the oxygen.

Refrigerated Storage – Short term holding of fresh, perishable, and potentially hazardous food items at an internal temperature of 41º or lower.

Salmonella – Bacterium that is found in poultry, shell eggs, and humans that causes a foodborne infection, salmonellosis.

Sanitary – Free of harmful levels of disease-causing microorganisms and other harmful contaminants.

Sanitation – The creation and maintenance of conditions favorable to good health.

Sanitization – The reduction of the number of disease-causing microorganisms to safe levels on clean food-contact surfaces.

Shelf life – The length of time that a food product can be stored without losing quality or compromising food safety.

Shigella – Bacteria found primarily in humans that causes shigellosis, a foodborne infection.

Sous vide – in which raw or partially cooked food is vacuum packaged in an impermeable bag, cooked in the bag, rapidly chilled, and refrigerated at temperatures that inhibit the growth of psychrotrophic pathogens (one that is capable of surviving or even thriving in a cold environment).

Spoilage – The breakdown of the edible quality of a food product.

Staphylococcal foodborne intoxication (staph) – The illness caused by the heat-stable toxins produced by staphylococcus aureus in food.

Temperature danger zone – The range of temperatures between 41º- 35º within which most bacteria grow and reproduce.

Time-and-Temperature Principle – Requires that all potentially hazardous food be kept at an internal temperature below 41ºF or above 135ºF during transport, storage, handling, preparation, display and serving. Also, potentially hazardous foods cannot remain at temperatures in the danger zone for more than a total of four hours.

Toxin – A poison produced by a living microorganism.

Virus – Like bacteria, viruses cause illness in humans and other animals. Unlike bacteria, viruses need a host in order to live and reproduce.

Water activity – The availability of moisture or water content in food.

Yeast – Microorganism that spoils food and requires sugar and moisture for survival. It is classified as fungi.